In the last 24 hours or thereabout, a particular video of the Nigerian Inspector General of Police surfaced online. This has sparked up interesting conversations around the topic of Dyslexia on social media.

I will attempt to talk about this from a purely medical perspective.
While there has been arguments in support and in criticism of the Police boss, one that I find amusing is the suggestion that the gentleman has dyslexia. Just from the video, twitter fingers made a diagnosis of dyslexia.

Sadly that’s rather unfortunate.
Let’s talk on this.
What is Dyslexia?
Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty which causes challenges with reading, writing and spelling.

It's a "specific learning difficulty", which means it causes problems with specific skills used for learning, such as reading and writing.

What is a Specific Learning Difficulty?
SpLD is a canopy term used to describe a set of frequently occurring difficulties, and these includes:

Dyspraxia or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

I will break down these terms to make it easy for those not in the medical field.

Dyspraxia is problems with coordination/movement
Dysgraphia is problems with writing
Dyscalculia is problems with mathematical calculations
ADHD is more of inattentiveness & impulsiveness

So why did I say that?
Dyslexia is considered a “Specific Learning Difficulty” and NOT a learning disability.

This is very crucial and very important, not to confuse the two. Even though they have problems with reading or spelling, they do NOT have a learning disability.
What’s the difference?
In dyslexia (which is a learning difficulty), intelligence is intact (sometimes even higher than normal);
But in learning disability, intelligence is impaired.

This is important to note, and not assume being dyslexic means to have a low intelligence.

How common is Dyslexia?
It may interest you to know there are estimates that up to 1 out of every 10 people in the UK has some degree of dyslexia.

I don’t have the figures for Nigeria, but this condition is common in a lot of people, especially in a mild degree.

Is dyslexia curable?
Sadly, Dyslexia is a lifelong illness that can present problems on a daily basis if nothing is done about it.

It’s usually noticed first in childhood but could manifest later in life. The individual just notices problems with reading/spelling.

What are the symptoms of #Dyslexia?

The features of dyslexia differ from one person to another. Each individual with Dyslexia will express the symptoms in different degrees and severity.

Let’s look at the symptoms based on the stages of life and what is noticed. Shall we?

What are the symptoms of #Dyslexia?

Symptoms in children under 5 years includes:

delayed speech development compared with other children of the same age (although this can have many different causes)

speech problems, such as not being able to pronounce long words properly

Symptoms of #Dyslexia in children under 5years are:

Mumbling up phrases – for example, saying "hecilopter" instead of "helicopter", or "beddy tear" instead of "teddy bear"

problems expressing themselves speaking, such as being unable to remember the right word to use

Symptoms of #Dyslexia in children under 5years

Problems rhyming words, such as "there were two black birds sitting on the wall, one name Peter one named Paul", or nursery rhymes

Child may say something like “there are two black boys on the wall, Nwanne Peter Nwanne Paul”.

Symptoms of #Dyslexia in children under 5years

Or the child may have problems with the national Anthem, singing “Arise o compassion 🎤 “ instead of “Arise o compatriots”, and may have difficulty recognising the difference or correcting the problem even as they grow.

Now let’s move to #Dyslexia symptoms in 5year olds to 12year olds.

problems learning the names and sounds of letters

spelling that is unpredictable and inconsistent

putting letters and figures the wrong way round – such as writing "6" instead "9", or "b" instead of "d"

Symptoms of #Dyslexia in 5-12year olds includes

confusing the order of letters in words

reading slowly or making errors when reading aloud

visual disturbances when reading – for example, a child may describe letters and words as moving around or they appear blurred

#Dyslexia symptoms in 5-12year olds include

answering questions well by talking, but having difficulty writing the answer down

struggling to learn sequences, such as days of the week or months of the year

slow writing speed

poor handwriting

problems copying notes

Now let’s talk of #Dyslexia symptoms in teenagers and adults

poor write ups– for example, even though they may know a lot about a certain subject, they may have problems writing down what they know

difficulty planning and writing essays, letters or reports at work

#Dyslexia symptoms in teenagers and adults includes

difficulty revising for exams

trying to avoid reading and writing whenever possible

difficulty taking notes or copying

poor spelling

struggling to remember simple things like a PIN, a telephone number or a home address

How is #dyslexia diagnosed?

The earlier a diagnosis of Dyslexia is made, the more effective the management and interventions will be.

However, if you read through the symptoms you will see there are so many things that can cause similar symptoms making diagnosis difficult.

If you know a child, a teenager or even an adult who has any of the symptoms I talked of earlier, don’t be quick to label them as having #Dyslexia.

Take them to a doctor. First.
They need to have hearing and vision tests to be sure that’s not the source of the symptoms.

The next thing is to talk to the teacher and attempt another learning style for the child.

Nigeria sadly has many teachers who are quite poor and unsupportive for children who may be a bit slow at learning. They beat, shout and harass the child, worsening the problems.

If there are still worries about the child after they've received additional teaching and support, it is a good idea to have an in-depth assessment.

It is carried out by an educational psychologist or specialist Dyslexia teacher.
This is how a diagnosis of Dyslexia is made.

How a #dyslexia assessment is done?

Usually, the assessment is done by a combination of

- questionnaires sent to teachers/carers/parents on child’s health state and educational skills
- observing in the learning environment
- a series of Dyslexia tests to assess severity

What are the components of the #Dyslexia tests?
The tests assesses:

-reading and writing abilities
-language development and vocabulary
-logical reasoning
-the speed they can process information from pictures and sound
-organisational skills
-approaches to learning

If you have been following all I’ve written thus far and seen how complex and multiple the symptoms of #Dyslexia are, and how detailed the Diagnosis procedure,

you see how ridiculous it is to read/hear that people will watch a 2-minute video and label a man with Dyslexia.

After a diagnosis of #Dyslexia is made, what happens next?

A report is given based on the tests, which will provide details on the nature and severity of any difficulties identified, as well as making recommendations as to how to best support the individual moving forward.

Based on results of the tests and the consequent recommendation by the expert, a legally binding educational plan is drawn up for the child.

It sets out the child's educational needs and the support required to meet those needs in a document reviewed formally every year.

But what can you do to help a child with #Dyslexia?

Read to the child
Read with the child
Give the time child to read alone- and assess understanding
Make reading fun- use books, toys, tools and things that make a child enjoy the idea of words, reading and sentences.

What can you do as a teenager/adult with #Dyslexia?

Try using electronic devices for learning. Laptops and tablets are easier to use for people with #Dyslexia.

Don’t be ashamed to use spellchecker autocorrect to avoid spelling errors.

You can use speech to text software.

Now back to the Nigerian IG of Police brouhaha, from my understanding, this man is a lawyer, an experienced policeman who has given countless public speeches in the past,

There is ABSOLUTELY no reason to think the man has Dyslexia. Insisting on such is a joke taken too far.

It is extremely difficult to imagine how a dyslexic individual could have become the Inspector General of Police, and how such individual will remain competent and effective in his job.

So those wanting to use Dyslexia to explain away that video are actually not helping him.
What happened in that video can be from many possibilities-

It could be a doctored video
Or he could have had a ‘mental block’ at that point in time
Or he was reading a badly worded speech that he failed to proofread before the day.

But what he does not have is #Dyslexia
Anyway on a final note, beyond whatever the actual issues may be, I’m glad this provided a real opportunity to educate on #Dyslexia and what to do.

And if you had stayed reading this thread to the end,
I salute your dedication.
And I appreciate you.

Thanks for your time.

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IF your genotype is not AA, marry an AA partner.

That’s your best bet.
End of advice.
Or better still,

Regardless of what your genotype is,
Marry an AA partner.

Irrespective of the permutations and your own genotype, an AA partner is your best option.
I hope that’s simple enough.
Thanks for your time.

Now retweet for others to be aware.
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Regardless of your genotype,
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