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Apr 20, 2018 • 55 tweets • 61 min read Twitter logo Read on Twitter
◼️#Cubism🔳

Cubism arose in Paris between 1907 & 1914 principally out of the bold, imagination & creativity of Pablo Picasso & Georges Braque bored by traditional aesthetics & techniques.

Pablo Picasso
Factory, Horta de Ebbo, 1909

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It is believed Picasso & Braque were influenced by the highly creative painting ‘The Librarian’ by Giuseppe Arcimboldo circa 1566.

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The Librarian

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There are two distinct phases of Cubism. Analytical Cubism (pre 1912) and Synthetic Cubism (post 1912).

AC

Georges Braque
Glass on a Table 1909–10

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The Cubist style rejected the traditional techniques of perspective, foreshortening, modeling, & chiaroscuro & refuted traditional theories that art should imitate nature.

Jean Metzinger - Tea Time (1911)

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“Perspective: method of graphically depicting 3D objects & inter-relational distance between objects (spacial) on a 2D plane or on a flat surface.”

Example of Perspective

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Foreshortening: method of rendering a specific object or figure to make the viewer perceive depth. Example objects in the foreground often appear larger than they are compared to those at a distance to render depth.

Example of foreshortening.

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“Chiaroscuro, (from Italian: chiaro, “light,” and scuro, “dark”) technique employed in the visual arts to represent light and shadow as they define three-dimensional objects.”

Example of Chiaroscuro

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Analytical Cubism (AC)

The Reservoir by Picasso (1909)

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“Cubist painters were not bound to copying form, texture, color & space; instead, they presented a new reality in paintings that depicted radically fragmented objects.”

Le Joueur de Guitare - Pablo Picasso

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The name ‘Cubism’ is derived from the snide remarks of critic Louis Vauxcelles, who described Braque’s 1908 work Houses at L’Estaque as being composed of cubes.

Georges Braque - Houses at L’Estaque - 1908

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In Braque’s painting, the volumes of the houses, the cylindrical forms of the trees, & the tan-and-green color scheme are reminiscent of Paul Cézanne’s landscapes.

Influencer

Paul Cézanne’s ‘The Château at Médan', 1880

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It was, however, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, painted by Picasso in 1907, that shows the transition to Cubism in this work, the forms of five female nudes become fractured, angular shapes.

Pablo Picasso - Les Demoiselles d’Avignon - 1907

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As in Cézanne’s art, perspective is rendered through color, with the warm reddish-browns advancing and the cool blues receding.

Georges Braque, The Port , 1909

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The movement’s development from 1909 to 1912 is referred to as Analytical Cubism.

Pablo Picasso. Portrait of Fernarde, 1909

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During this period, the work of Picasso and Braque became so similar that their paintings are almost indistinguishable.

Braque's "Terrace of Hotel Mistral"

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Analytical Cubist paintings by both artists show the breaking down, or analysis, of form.

Analytical Cubism

Georges Braque – Violin & a Pitcher.

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One of the most distinguishing features of the paintings painted during the period of analytical cubism – monochrome. “Color weakens!” stated Picasso.

Analytical Cubism

Pablo Picasso - The Pigeon Pea

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Second, all objects depicted are of the same texture; careful depiction of dust, hairs, silks are no longer relevant in the Analytical phase.

Synthetic Cubism

Harlequin, 1918 by Pablo Picasso

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Thirdly, is that any perspective fully disappears in analytical cubism. If the goal is to portray the concept of the subject itself, where exactly it is located, far or near, it is irrelevant.

Pablo Picasso - Harlequin Leaning

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Picasso and Braque favoured right-angle and straight-line construction, though occasionally some areas of their paintings appear sculptural, as in Picasso’s Girl with a Mandolin (1910).

Analytical Cubism

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They simplified their color schemes to a nearly monochromatic scale. For Example, hues of tan, brown, gray, cream, green, or blue were preferred.

Synthetic Cubism

Woman in an Armchair (Eva)". Pablo Picasso, 1913

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In Analytic Cubism monochromatic colors were preferred so as not to distract the viewer from the artist’s primary interest—the structure of form itself.

Synthetic Cubism

Le Courrier by Georges Braque (1913-1914)

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“The monochromatic color scheme was suited to the presentation of complex, multiple views of the object, which was reduced to overlapping opaque & transparent planes.”

Synthetic Cubism

Picasso - Three Musicians

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These planes appear to move beyond the surface of the canvas rather than to recede in depth.

Synthetic Cubism

The Guitar By Pablo Picasso - 1913

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Forms are generally compact & dense in the center of an Analytical Cubist painting, growing larger as they diffuse toward the edges of the canvas, as in Picasso’s Portrait of Ambroise Vollard (1909–10).

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Synthetic Cubism

Still-Life With Chair Caning by Picasso (1912)

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In their work from this period, Picasso and Braque frequently combined representational motifs with letters.

Synthetic Cubism

Pablo Picasso - Head of a Man

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Their favorite motifs were musical instruments, bottles, pitchers, glasses, newspapers, & the human face & figure.

Portrait of Marie-Thérèse Walter. Synthetic Cubism - Pablo Picasso

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Interest in this subject matter continued after 1912, during the phase generally identified as

Synthetic Cubism.

Robert Delaunay - La Your Rouge (1911 - 1912)

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Works of this phase emphasize the combination, or synthesis, of forms in the picture to create something more real.

Synthetic Cubism

Pablo Picasso - The Dream

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Picasso, Braque and the painter Juan Gris added a vibrant range of colors back into their works.

Synthetic Cubism

Juan Gris,Still Life with Violin and Glass, 1915

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They reintroduced depth, and diminished the number of simultaneous perspectives and planes in their imagery.

Synthetic Cubism

Juan Gris - Guitar on a Chair

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Cubists started adding paper, cloth, newsprint, text & even sand & dirt to their works, attempting to bring a total sense of the reality of their subject’s essence into play.

The Woman with the fruit dish - Fernand Léger - Synthetic Cubism

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Synthetic Cubism

Bottle, Newspaper and Fruit Bowl - Juan Gris

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This technique, known as collage, further emphasizes the differences in texture & at the same time, poses the question of what is reality & what is illusion.

Fernand Léger - Gif-sur-Yvette - 1918.

Synthetic Cubism moving toward Suprematism

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While Picasso and Braque are credited with creating this new visual language, it was adopted & further developed by many painters.

Sonia Delaunay - Synthetic Cubism

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Most notable are Fernand Léger, Robert and Sonia Delaunay, Juan Gris, Roger de la Fresnaye, Marcel Duchamp, Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger and Louis Marcoussis .

Robert Delaunay, 1923, Propeller - Synthetic Cubism

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Though primarily associated with painting, Cubism also exerted a profound influence on 20th-century sculpture and architecture.

Synthetic Cubism

Sonia Delaunay - Eiffel Tower Paris

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Synthetic Cubism

The Magician, by Roger De La Fresnaye (1885-1925, France)

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Synthetic Cubism

Roger de La Fresnaye - Smoking Soldier - 1919

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Analytical Cubism

Marcel Duchamp - Nude Descending A Staircase, 1912.

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Analytical Cubism

Marcel Duchamp - Bride, 1912.

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Synthetic Cubism

Albert Gleizes - Landscape with Tree 1914

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Synthetic Cubism

Albert Gleizes - Paysage Cubiste (Cubist Landscape), 1914

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Synthetic Cubist

Still-Life - Louis Marcoussis

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Synthetic Cubism

Violin, Bottle Flowers in a Glass and Eight of Spades - Louis Marcoussis

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The major Cubist sculptors were Alexander Archipenko, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, and Jacques Lipchitz.

Alexander Archipenko

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Cheval (pferd) by Raymond Duchamp-Villon

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Jacques Lipchitz, 'Guitar Player in Armchair' 1922

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Synthetic Cubism

Marie-Thérèse Marie - Pablo Picasso

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Synthetic Cubism

Harlequin - Pablo Picasso - 1915

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The adoption of the Cubist aesthetic by the Swiss architect Le Corbusier is reflected in the shapes of the houses he designed during the 1920s.

Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France

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Cubism influenced Futurism in Italy, Vorticism in England, De Stijlism in the Netherlands, Suprematism and Constructivism in Russia, and Expressionism in Germany.

Futurism:

“Giacomo Balla. Un’onda di luce”

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If you enjoyed this thread please check out #PopArt, #GermanExpressionism, #PreRaphaelites, #Dadaism #Surrealism. #Bauhaus & #AshCanSchool #Fauvism

Next up? #Futurism - stay-tuned!

❤️Please add you favorites!

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#PAM #PAMFAM #Cubism
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